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#include <stdio.h> and #include <stdlib.h> are both preprocessor directives in C that instruct the compiler to include specific standard header files. However, they serve different purposes and provide different functionality:

  1. #include <stdio.h>:
    • This directive is used to include the standard input/output (I/O) library header file.
    • <stdio.h> provides functions and macros for input and output operations, such as reading from and writing to the console or files.
    • Common functions and macros from <stdio.h> include printf, scanf, fprintf, fscanf, getchar, putchar, fgets, fputs, and more.
    • When you include <stdio.h>, you gain access to the standard I/O functions and data types like FILE for file handling.

Example:

#include <stdio.h>
int main() {
printf("Hello, world!\n");
return 0;
}
  1. #include <stdlib.h>:
    • This directive is used to include the standard library header file.
    • <stdlib.h> provides functions and macros related to general utilities and memory management.
    • Common functions and macros from <stdlib.h> include malloc, free, exit, atoi, rand, srand, and more.
    • When you include <stdlib.h>, you gain access to functions for dynamic memory allocation, process control, and some general-purpose functions.

Example:

#include <stdlib.h>
int main() {
int *ptr = (int *)malloc(sizeof(int));
if (ptr == NULL) {
exit(1);
// Terminate the program with an error code
}
*ptr = 42;
free(ptr);
return 0;
}

In summary, <stdio.h> is primarily used for input and output operations, while <stdlib.h> is used for general-purpose utilities like memory allocation and process control. Including the appropriate header files is essential for using the functions and data types defined in these libraries in your C programs.

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